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Glossary of photographic terms - TakenWithM43

Glossary of photographic terms

From TakenWithM43

This glossary of photographic terms gathers explanations of terminology related to the general field of photography that are used elsewhere on the site.

AdobeRGB
AdobeRGB is a color space created by Adobe (as its name implies). It was designed to represent most of the colors available in the four color model used by color printers in the three color RGB space of color display technology. Compared to sRGB, AdobeRGB has a wider gamut, or array of colors it can represent. Therefore, at least in theory, it is capable of representing images with more vibrant colors. However, sRGB is much more universally used.
Angle of view
Angle of view (AoV) describes the extent of a scene which can be captured with a given lens. In technical terms it is the "angle in a lens between lines drawn from opposite edges of the image to the second nodal point of the lens".[1] It is often used interchangeably with Field of view (FoV), but (FoV) takes into account the camera to which the lens is attached — a lens with a given AoV will yield a different FoV when mounted on a camera with a different sensor size.[2]
Anti-aliasing filter
An anti-aliasing filter, sometimes called an Optical Low Pass Filter (OPLF), is a filter sitting immediately in front of the image sensor in some cameras. The job of the anti-aliasing filter is to reduce or eliminate interference patterns in images, which are typically caused by repetitive patterns like multiple closely spaced lines (think of a brick wall from across the street or a closeup of a bird's feathers or a pair of corduroy pants). These type of scenes can cause a distortion pattern known as moiré.

An anti-aliasing filter smooths over the higher spatial frequencies (softening unresolvable detail) and allows only the lower frequencies (hence the alternate term ‘low pass filter’) to pass through to the sensor.[3]
Aperture
The opening in the lens through which light passes is the aperture. The size of the aperture is one of the key components of the exposure triangle. Aperture is expressed as the f-number which is a ratio of the size of the physical opening to the focal length of the lens. A larger f-number equates to a smaller aperture, which allows less light to reach the image sensor.
Articulating screen
An articulating screen is a rear display on a camera which is not fixed in place. Various designs are employed to achieve different angles and usage scenarios. Among the types employed by M43 cameras are tilt screens, which allow movement about only a single axis, (usually tilting up or down) and fully articulating screens, which allow for movement about two axes. Other designs allow for the screen to tilt both up and down and side to side (referred to as double-hinged tilting or 3-way tilting) or allow the screen to tilt freely along a number of axes, but not flip all the way forward (called cross-tilt or flex-tilt screens).
Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio is a comparison of a rectangular image or image sensor's width to its height. The Micro Four Thirds design specifies a native aspect ratio of 4:3, i.e. the vertical dimension of the sensor measures ¾ that of the horizontal dimension. This 4:3 ratio is also employed by most small-sensor point-and-shoot cameras. Most DSLRs use a slightly wider sensor with a 3:2 aspect ratio. Other commonly used image formats are 1:1, i.e. square, and 16:9, which is the standard for HD video.
Autofocus
An optical system consisting of some type of sensor and processor to assess when a particular area of an image is in proper focus paired with a motor to move lens elements to achieve a clear image. The two main types of AF systems employed to M43 cameras are CDAF and PDAF.
Comparison of simplified back-illuminated and front-illuminated pixel cross-sections
Back-illuminated sensor
A back-illuminated sensor (also referred to as a backside-illuminated sensor or BSI) is a type of image sensor with a configuration that allows more light to be collected at the pixel level. A traditional (i.e. front-illuminated) sensor has a matrix of transistors and wiring sandwiched between the microlens and the photodiode which measures the light; with this design some light is blocked by this matrix before it reaches the diode. A back-illuminated sensor is produced by shaving off the silicon substrate after the sensor is fabricated allowing it to be flipped around so that light can be collected from the "back side".[4] This means that the photodiode is directly beneath the microlens, thus minimizing the light loss. The primary benefit of this design is that it leads to improvements in images captured in low light.[5]
Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a short-range wireless protocol which facilitates connectivity between two digital devices that are in close proximity. It is used as one way (along with WiFi and NFC) to wirelessly connect select cameras with smartphones, tablets, computers or other devices. Bluetooth is typically limited to about a 30 ft. (10m) line-of-sight range.
Bracketing
Bracketing is the practice of taking a series of shots while adjusting some factor between each photo. Many different factors can be bracketed in this way: exposure (adjusting the shutter speed), focus, white balance, flash, dynamic range or even creative filters. This can be employed either to ensure coverage (i.e. making sure at least one shot has the "correct" settings) or to capture images that can be blended together after the fact to create an image with, for example, greater dynamic range or a deeper Camera lens#Depth of field than can be achieved using a single capture.
BSI
see Back-illuminated sensor
Bulb mode
Bulb mode allows a photographer to keep the shutter open as long as the shutter button is depressed. This can be useful for capturing scenes in extremely low light or to blur movement for artistic effect.
Burst mode
Burst mode, or continuous shooting mode, means capturing a series of images very rapidly. This is useful for freezing the exact "right" moment during fast action (e.g. in sports or wildlife photography). Burst mode can also be employed along with bracketing to quickly capture a series of images with slightly different parameters. The burst rate of a camera determines how quickly images can be captured and is usually expressed in frames per second (fps). A camera will sometimes have different burst rates depending on whether it refocuses or adjusts the exposure between each shot.
CCD
see Charge-coupled device
CDAF
see Contrast-detect autofocus
CFexpress Type B
CFexpress Type B is a non-volatile storage medium in the form of a memory chip encased in a metal case a bit larger than a postage stamp. Compared to Secure Digital CFexpress offers faster write speeds (up to 2.0Gbps) in a slightly larger form factor.
Charge-coupled device
Charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors were the dominant technology used in digital cameras until being displaced in the mid-2000s by CMOS technology. For more information see charge-coupled device.
CMOS
see Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are a type of active-pixel sensor with each pixel consisting of a photodiode and one or more transistors. CMOS sensors supplanted CCD sensors in digital cameras starting in the mid-2000s primarily because they are more energy efficient and also because they are simpler and thus cheaper to produce. The Live MOS sensors used by M43 cameras are a type of CMOS sensor. More information: CMOS sensor.
Color space
A color space is the specific range of colors that can be represented in a particular photographic image. The range of the chosen color space dictates how vibrant colors appear in a particular image. The two main color spaces available for modern digital photography are AdobeRGB and sRGB.
Computational photography
Computational photography refers to any digital imaging or processing technique that applies computation to a traditionally optical image to create a new image. This can range from stitching multiple images together to create a high definition or panoramic image, to high dynamic range (HDR) imagery, to 3D imaging and more.
Continuous autofocus
Continuous autofocus or CAF is a mode where the camera uses its autofocus system to constantly maintain a sharp image at the designated focus point or zone. This contrasts with single autofocus mode where the focus point is locked in just one time. CAF is particularly useful for capturing video or when photographing moving subjects.
Contrast-detect autofocus
Contrast-detect autofocus (CDAF) uses pixels on the image sensor to detect proper focus by judging the contrast between pixels. It relies on the assertion that contrast is highest when the image is in focus. To judge this it quickly racks the focus back and forth until it settles on the correct focus. It works best for high-contrast subjects and is very accurate, particularly for still subjects. However, it is typically not as quick as phase-detect autofocus (PDAF). Most mirrorless cameras, including most M43 cameras, employ contract detection autofocus.
Digital camera
A device that captures images using a digital image sensor and stores them on a digital storage medium.
Digital single-lens reflex
A Digital single-lens reflex or (DSLR) camera uses a mirror and pentaprism to direct light to an optical viewfinder prior to the shot and then flips the mirror out of the way to direct the light from the lens directly onto a digital image sensor to capture an image. Four Thirds system cameras exemplify the DSLR design. By contrast, M43 cameras are mirrorless meaning that they have no mirror, pentaprism or optical viewfinder, instead relying on an LCD display and/or an electronic viewfinder which display an live view image captured directly by the digital sensor.
Diopter
Technically a diopter is a unit of refractive power that is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of a given lens. In practical terms, it's an adjustment that can be made to make an image in a viewfinder appear clear to photographers with differing vision. Most viewfinders have a small diopter adjustment dial on the side. This can be particularly useful for those wearing eyeglasses that prevent their eye from getting close to the viewfinder. Most cameras have diopter adjustment ranges between around plus or minus 4 diopters.
DSLR
see Digital single-lens reflex
Dynamic range
The dynamic range of a scene is simply the difference between the brightest and darkest elements in that scene. Cameras are limited in the amount of dynamic range they can capture, so an image of a scene with an extreme dynamic range the photographer must sometimes choose between maintaining the details in the brightest portions (the highlights) and those in the darkest portions (the shadows). High dynamic range (HDR) imagery is a type of computational photography where multiple shots with differing exposure values are captured and subsequently blended into a single image with a dynamic range beyond that of the camera used.
Electronic shutter
An electronic shutter is a process employed by a digital camera to approximate the function of a shutter without employing a physical mechanism. This is done by transferring the electric charges from individual pixels on the image sensor to a group of paired, shaded pixels and then capturing that data as an image.

Electronic shutters can be prone to negative effects such as "rolling shutter" if the scene or camera movement exceeds the write speed of the image sensor & processor.[6] See also global shutter.
Electronic viewfinder
An electronic viewfinder (EVF) is a camera component which contains a tiny LCD or OLED display which projects an image from the image sensor to assist in framing the capture. Most EVFs overlay information about camera settings on the display to assist the photographer. One advantage of an EVF over an Optical viewfinder is that the EVF can provide a preview of what the final image will look like using the selected aperture and shutter speed.
EV
Exposure Value (EV) is a number that combines shutter speed and aperture into a single value. It is essentially a measure of the amount of light that could reach the image sensor. A higher EV means the settings will allow in less light with EV values mostly falling in a range between negative 10 and positive 20. The "correct" EV for a particular scene depends on the amount of light in the scene; daylight shots in full sun will require higher EVs, while something like astrophotography will require a lower EV.
EVF
see Electronic viewfinder
Exposure
Exposure refers to the amount of light that is captured in an image. It is controlled by the three variables which form the exposure triangle
Exposure triangle
Aperture, shutter speed and sensitivity (ISO) make up the three sides of the exposure triangle. These three elements together determine the exposure of the image. If one of these elements is changed, then at least one of the others must also be altered to maintain a consistent exposure or EV.
Diagram depicting the Field of view (FoV) of a lens/camera combination.
Field of view
Field of view (FoV) describes the extent of a scene which can be captured with a given lens and camera combination. It is often used interchangeably with Angle of view (AoV), but AoV is a property of the lens alone while FoV takes into account the camera to which the lens is attached — a lens with a given AoV will yield a different FoV when mounted on a camera with a different sensor size.[2]
File format
An image file format is a standardized means of representing and storing an image in digital form. Common file formats used in photography include JPEG, Raw and TIFF.
Firmware
Firmware is software stored (typically on non-removable flash memory) within a camera. Firmware serves as essentially the operating system for the camera's image processor. In M43 cameras firmware can typically be updated by the user which allows manufacturers to fix bugs or add new features to existing cameras.
Flash
A flash is a device used in photography to produce a brief burst of artificial light to illuminate a scene.
Flash synchronization
Flash synchronization refers to the fastest shutter speed at which a flash can evenly illuminate a scene when using a physical two-curtain focal-plane shutter. This value is referred to as the X-sync speed and it is dependent on the speed at which the shutter moves over the focal plane.
Focus
1.  Focus refers to the area of an image in which the contrast is sharpest. This area is also referred to as the focal plane.
2.  Focus (or focusing) can also refer to the act of manipulating a lens element or camera-to-subject distance to place the focal plane in the chosen area of the image.
Focus hunting
Focus hunting refers to an issue where an autofocus system has difficulty settling on a focus point. This can cause the lens to continue racking through the full range of focus and/or shifting back and forth over a single point in the focusing range. This condition is exacerbated by scenes with minimal contrast (e.g. a cloudless blue sky or a blank wall) or where insufficient light is present. Some lenses, particularly macro lenses, have a mechanism to limit the focusing range as a way to minimize focus hunting.
Focus peaking
Focus peaking is one method employed to assist when using manual focus. It detects the highest contrast areas of the live view image and highlights these on the EVF or rear display. This highlighted area will move whenever the photographer adjusts the focus ring of the lens, allowing him to select what he wants to be in sharp focus.
Focus stacking
Focus stacking is a method of combining several images taken with different focus points to achieve a larger depth of field than you could otherwise achieve with a particular lens and aperture.[7]
Frame rate
Frame rate is the speed at which images are displayed, particularly in video. It is expressed in frames per second (fps). Common frame rates supported by M43 cameras include 30 fps (the television broadcast standard), 24 fps (the cinema standard) or 60 fps. Video captured at higher frame rates can subsequently be displayed at slower rates, which appears to slow down the action.
A fully articulating screen on an Olympus E-620.
Fully articulating screen
A fully articulating camera display (also called a swing-and-tilt or twist-and-tilt or rotating screen) is one which rotates about two axes. Typically this is achieved with a hinge to the left of the screen which has a mechanism which allows the screen to swivel once it's folded out. This allows for a lot of flexibility in the screen angle, including the ability to see the screen from in front of the camera, as for a "selfie". Fully articulating screens are considered particularly useful for capturing video, but since they require the screen to first be swung to the side before they can be tilted up or down, they can't be deployed quite as quickly to help frame shots from high or low angles, where a tilt screen excels.
Global shutter
An electronic shutter which can transfer data from all of the pixels on the image sensor simultaneously is now as a global shutter. A global shutter eliminates the artifacts such as rolling shutter which can accompany non-global electronic shutters.
GN
see Guide number
Guide number
A guide number (or GN) of a flash provides a means to calculate the distance from a subject at which that flash can provide adequate illumination. The GN is the product of the distance (in meters) and the aperture of the lens; so to calculate the distance one needs to divide the GN by the chosen aperture (f-number). The GN is stated for a particular ISO, usually ISO 100; using a higher ISO will provide a greater effective distance for the flash. A flash with a higher GN will be more powerful and will illuminate objects further from the camera.
HDR
see High Dynamic Range imaging
High Dynamic Range imaging
High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is a set of techniques that are used to produce an image with a higher range of luminosity (i.e. dynamic range than could otherwise be captured due to limitations of the sensor, processor or lens. Typically HDR consists of taking a number of shots (usually 3 or more) at different EVs and then blending these images together so that the final image includes the highlights from one image and the shadows from another. This can be done after the fact using image editing software, but many modern cameras include the ability to process HDR images in-camera as well.
Image (L) and its associated histogram (R).
Histogram
A histogram is a graphical representation of the amount (and/or wavelengths) of light contained in an image. The histogram can be useful to see whether an image is over or under exposed. Some histograms represent total light, while others further break this down to show each of the color channels (red, green and blue) captured by a digital image sensor.[8]
Hybrid
In terms of cameras, hybrid refers to one that is focused on producing both still and video images. While all M43 cameras (except the Panasonic Lumix DMC-G1 are capable of capturing both, most are optimized more toward still photography; the video-focused Panasonic Lumix GH line, such as the GH5, are the exception, and therefore the ones most fit to wear the "hybrid" mantle.
Image processor
An image processor is a specialized digital signal processing microcomputer chip (or chipset) employed in a digital camera. The image processor takes the raw measurements captured by the image sensor and transforms them into a digital representation of the scene which can be output as an image.
Image sensor
An image sensor in a digital camera is a device that detects and conveys data composing an image. A sensor is composed of multiple individual pixels, typically numbering in the millions which each measure or count the number of photons of light which they collect during an exposure. The two main types of sensors used in digital cameras are Charge-coupled device (CCD) and Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS).
Image stabilization
Image stabilization (IS) encompasses a range of techniques which share a common goal of isolating and minimize external movement in cameras. In the M43 world, the two main companies chose different IS paths: Panasonic implemented lens-based IS in many of their lenses produced for the system, while Olympus chose to implement sensor-shift IS into their camera bodies. The Panasonic lens-based stabilization goes by the names MEGA O.I.S. and POWER O.I.S. Olympus brands their stabilization technology as IBIS (for in-body image stabilization). These disparate approaches eventually merged into technology that incorporates both body-based sensor-shift IS with lens-based IS – Panasonic calls their implementation Dual IS while Olympus's is branded Sync IS. These multi-pronged approaches offer better stabilization than is possible using either approach by itself, but they are proprietary to the individual companies, i.e. the Olympus system works only when you pair an appropriate Olympus camera and lens, and vice versa with Panasonic.
Intervalometer
An intervalometer is a device that actuates a camera's shutter at a set interval. External intervalometers can be connected to a camera to enable the capture of time-lapse images. More commonly with modern digital cameras an intervalometer will be incorporated within the design, perhaps as a function of the image processor. Many M43 cameras have such built-in intervalometers.
ISO
See sensitivity
JPEG
JPEG (or JPG) is a digital image format commonly used by digital cameras. JPEG relies on a compression algorithm to reduce the size of the image file. JPEG compression is lossy, meaning that it does not preserve all of the information contained in the original RAW file. JPEG files can typically be identified by a ".jpg" or ".jpeg" file extension.
LCD
see Liquid crystal display
Lens mount
A lens mount is a mechanical and electronic between a camera body and lens. Interchangeable lens systems rely on a consistent lens mount to allow multiple lenses to be attached to a single camera. All Micro Four Thirds lenses adhere to the lens mount design that is defined in the system specifications.
Liquid crystal display
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display technology which harnesses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals using polarizers to provide a representation of a digital image. LCDs are commonly used for rear displays and electronic viewfinders in M43 cameras. Compared to OLED displays LCDs are brighter, but cannot display as great a range of contrast.
Live view
Live view is a digital camera mode where the image from the sensor is displayed on the rear display and/or electronic viewfinder in real time. For mirrorless cameras, like those in the M43 system, this is the default option. In a DSLR camera, the mirror must be tilted out of the way to enable live view mode, however, doing so can limit focusing functionality on such cameras.
Light metering
Metering involves measuring the amount of light the subject is reflecting to the camera. This information is then used by the camera to adjust the exposure (except in fully manual mode). Various methods, or metering modes, can be employed, including matrix metering which measures light around the entire frame and chooses a medium value, center metering which sets the exposure based on the light levels only in the center of the frame and spot metering wherein only a small area of the frame is used to select the proper exposure.[9]
Lithium-ion battery
Lithium-ion is a type of rechargeable battery technology which has a high energy density, little to no memory effect and holds a charge well between uses. It is the battery type used for most (if not all) M43 cameras.
Manual focus
Manual focusing is the process of adjusting the focal point of a lens to bring the representation of the image on the focal plane into the highest contrast (or focus). This is typically done by turning a physical ring on the lens. While most cameras developed since the mid-1980s have some sort of autofocus (AF) system whereby the camera chooses focus on its own, there are times (e.g. in low light or when capturing layered scenes) where the photographer may want to override the AF and use manual focusing to produce the desired image. Some cameras provide manual focusing aids such as focus peaking to assist in determining the correct focus.
Megapixel
A megapixel is simply one million pixels and is often abbreviated as MP. It is used to describe the resolution of a digital sensor or image. A sensor that is 4,000 pixels wide and 3,000 pixels tall would have 12 million pixels (4,000 times 3,000 equals 12,000,000) and thus would be described as a 12 megapixel (or 12MP) sensor.
MicroSD
MicroSD is a storage medium that is an offshoot of the Secure Digital standard. MicroSD cards have a significantly smaller form factor than SD cards, being roughly the size of one pinky fingernail. MicroSD cards are used in applications where size and weight are at a premium, e.g. in lightweight drones.
Extreme example of moiré caused by the stripes on a shirt.
Moiré
Moiré occurs in a photograph when a scene or object being photographed contains repetitive details (dots, lines, checks, stripes) that exceed the sensor resolution. Common causes are things like details of a bird's feathers or certain types of fabric like gingham or corduroy. When these types of fine details exceed the resolution of the image sensor they can cause appear in the image as a strange-looking, often multi-colored wavy pattern. These patterns can be very difficult to remove completely from an image after the fact, so many cameras employ an anti-aliasing filter in front of the sensor to reduce the effect.
MPO
Multi Picture Object (MPO) is a digital image format used to store stereoscopic images. An MPO contains a pair of two dimensional JPEG images which can be combined into a single simulated three dimensional image.
MSRP
Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price.
Near Field Communication
Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless connectivity protocol that works over very short distances of roughly 4cm or less. For M43 cameras with NFC built in, the primary use is to simplify the connection to another device (typically a smartphone) over another wireless protocol, like WiFi.
NFC
see Near Field Communication
Noise
Noise is a type of visual distortion which can reduce the fidelity of an image. Technically, noise is a manifestation of a signal-to-noise ratio that is too low. Noise can have a number of causes. Chief among these are using a higher sensitivity or ISO; increased pixel density of the image sensor, which requires smaller pixels which are less capable of capturing light; or using an extremely long shutter speed which can lead to luminance noise.
OLED
see Organic light-emitting diode (display)
Optical low pass filter
see Anti-aliasing filter
Optical viewfinder
An optical viewfinder (OVF) is a component which provides a view of the scene which the camera is set to capture. An optical viewfinder can be as simple a removable optic which provides an approximation of the framing of the shot, sometimes with guidelines for different focal lengths. In a single-lens reflex (or DSLR) design the OVF provides a preview of the image through the actual lens, by way of a mirror and pentaprism. Mirrorless cameras instead rely on electronic viewfinders.
Organic light-emitting diode (display)
Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a flat-panel display technology which produces an image by directing light from LEDs onto an organic film compound. OLED displays are used for rear displays and electronic viewfinders in some M43 cameras. Compared to the other major type of display used, LCDs, OLEDs can represent a larger dynamic range, but are not as bright which can cause them to appear "washed out" when using them in brightly lit environments.
Orientation sensor
An orientation sensor can detect whether a camera is being held in the typical way (i.e. landscape orientation for most cameras) or tilted on its side (portrait orientation). This information can then be encoded with the image so that the image can be displayed in the same orientation it was captured. All but the earliest M43 cameras have an orientation sensor built in. For those without, the user will have to manually rotate the images in an imaging processing program or when they are displayed.
PDAF
see Phase-detect autofocus
Phase-detect autofocus
Phase-detect autofocus (PDAF) is an autofocus system that creates two images and then moves the lens element until those two images are lined up, or in "phase", at which point the image is in focus. This is the primary autofocus system utilized by DSLR cameras. Some Olympus cameras, starting with the Olympus OM-D E-M1 employ a PDAF system which uses special cross shaped phase-detection pixels arrayed throughout the imaging area.[10]
Pixel
A pixel (derived from "picture element") is the fundamental display unit of an image sensor or the resulting bitmapped image. On an imaging sensor a pixel is a single site or spot which gathers photons of light, and converts these photons into electronic information. The more pixels an image is comprised of, the higher its perceived resolution.
Pixel pitch
Pixel pitch refers to the width of a pixel on an image sensor, usually expressed in µm (micrometers). Simply put, pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next pixel. The smaller the pixel pitch number, the more pixels on the sensor, and thus the greater the resolution.[11]
Point-and-shoot camera
An imaging device in which the exposure and focus is adjusted automatically so that the user need only frame the shot and press the shutter. Although this can describe a mirrorless camera or DSLR in full-auto mode, the term is typically used to describe compact digital or film cameras without interchangeable lenses.
Post-processing
In photography and videography, post-processing is a term used to describe any image editing that occurs after the image is captured. Raw image files require some sort of post-processing to generate an image, but such editing can be performed on any sort of file containing image data.
Raw
Raw is a data file format containing minimally processed information generated by the image sensor of a digital camera. The raw file is not an image format per se, as it must be processed by a raw converter to create an image file in JPEG or TIFF format. The advantage of a raw file is that it allows the maximum possible headroom in applying changes to the image during post-processing.
Resolution
The amount of detail captured in an image is known as resolution. Resolution is typically measured in pixels per inch (PPI). When comparing two image sensors of the same size, the one with the higher megapixel count will have a higher resolution and thus images from that sensor will contain more detail.
The front and back of the Sony 64GB SF-M Tough Series UHS-II SDXC Memory Card.
SD
see Secure Digital
SDHC
Secure Digital High Capacity. See Secure Digital.
SDUC
Secure Digital Ultra Capacity. See Secure Digital.
SDXC
Secure Digital eXtended Capacity. See Secure Digital.
Secure Digital
Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile storage medium in the form of a memory chip encased in a plastic (or metal) case roughly the size of a postage stamp. The SD specification has gone through several iterations over the years, generally to increase the storage capacity, which maxed out at 2 gigabytes (GB) of storage in the original SD or SDSC (SD standard capacity). The first of these new formats was SDHC (SD High Capacity) which is capable of storing up to 32GB. Next comes SDXC (SD eXtended Capacity) which tops out at 2 terabytes (TB), or 2,000GB of storage. Finally, SDUC (SD Ultra Capacity) can store up to 128TB of data.

In addition to capacity, SD cards are also rated by performance. These ratings include (in order of slower to faster) "High Speed", UHS (Ultra High Speed) also known as UHS-I, UHS-II, UHS-III and SDExpress.

Some cameras use smaller versions of these cards known as microSD, microSDHC, or microSDXC. These microSD cards can also be used in place of full-sized cards using an adapter.

Sensitivity
Sensitivity is a measure of the ability of an imaging sensor or film medium to capture light. Sensitivity is represented by a numerical value based on a standard set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) which also gives the value its name. A higher ISO value represents a greater ability to capture light. Sensitivity (or ISO) is one factor in the exposure triangle, along with aperture and shutter speed. As the ISO value is doubled the amount of light necessary to produce a given exposure is cut in half. However, an increase in noise (or grain, in film) accompanies an increase in sensitivity.[12]
Shutter
A shutter is a physical device built into a camera which opens and closes to allow light to reach the image sensor for a particular length of time. The amount of time the shutter is open is referred to as the shutter speed. While a variety of shutter mechanisms exist (e.g. leaf shutters, rotary shutters, etc.), M43 cameras typically employ vertical-travel focal-plane shutters positioned directly in front of the image sensor.
Shutter actuations
The number of times a shutter has been triggered is referred to as the shutter actuation count. Mechanical shutters are sometimes rated for a certain number of lifetime actuations, indicating their durability. Higher end cameras targeted at professional photographers often have shutters capable of several hundred thousand actuations.
Shutter speed
The amount of time that the shutter is opened when producing an image is the shutter speed. It is typically measured in fractions of a second, but can sometimes extend to multiple seconds or even minutes. Along with aperture and sensitivity (or ISO), shutter speed is one of the primary elements that determines an exposure (see exposure triangle). A fast shutter speed can be used to freeze action, while a longer shutter speed allows more light to reach the image sensor.
Single autofocus
Single autofocus or SAF is a mode where the camera uses its autofocus system to determine the set the focus point of the image just once and then locks in that setting. This is often configured to occur when the user depresses the shutter button halfway, but the autofocus functionality can be moved to a different button on many cameras.
sRGB
The standard red, green, blue color space which was developed for the Internet is known as sRGB. While sRGB doesn't have as wide of a gamut as the other common option, AdobeRGB, it is much more commonly used.
Stacked sensor
A stacked sensor is the next generation of CMOS sensor technology, building on advancements introduced with back-illuminated (BSI) sensors. With a stacked sensor the photodiode function and circuitry of the sensor are fabricated individually, then joined (i.e. stacked) together. This allows designs of each layer to be more complex than they could previously be. One innovation allowed by stacked sensors is the integration of RAM (short-term memory) directly on the sensor, which allows for significant performance improvements particularly in the area of sensor readout speed.[4]
Storage media
Any technology which can be used to persist information. For M43 cameras this typically means some sort of Secure Digital (SD) card.
Through the lens flash control
A system in which the camera's internal light metering system is used to control the level of the flash.
TIFF
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is an image file format. It is a lossless format, meaning that it doesn't compress the file and therefore no data is lost. As such, TIFF files are considerably larger than those stored in lossy formats like JPEG. Due to its lossless nature, TIFF is a common format to use while editing images.
A tilt screen on an Olympus OM-D E-M10.
Tilt screen
A tilt screen is a rear camera display which can be moved around a single axis. Typically a tilt screen can be moved either up or down, which makes them useful for framing shots when the camera is being held above or below eye level. Since tilt screens cannot be viewed from the front of the camera, they are less useful for framing selfies or for monitoring video of oneself, which is where fully articulating screens perform best.
Touchscreen
A touchscreen is a device that overlays a flat-panel display with an input method based on touch. Most touchscreens allow the user to manipulate the screen using her fingers. The two main types of touchscreens are resistive and capacitive. These use different methods, with resistive screens being less responsive and accurate but cheaper. Most M43 cameras use capacitive touchscreens, but some of the earlier ones had resistive screens.
TTL
see Through the lens flash control.
Viewfinder
A viewfinder is a part of a camera through which a photographer looks to frame an image. There are two main types: optical (OVF) and electronic viewfinder (EVF).
White balance
Since different light source emit light at different temperatures, the light they emit produces a color cast on the scene. The white balance setting in a camera allows the color temperature of the image to be adjusted so that colors appear natural.
WiFi
WiFi (from Wireless Fidelity) is a set of wireless communications protocols that allow connections between two or more digital devices. Wifi-enabled M43 cameras can use their WiFi connections to support tethered shooting or to transfer images from the camera to another device.

See also[edit | edit source]

Glossary of videography terms

Sources[edit | edit source]

  1. "Definition of angle of view". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2021-10-18.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mansurov, Nasim (February 12, 2018). "Equivalent Focal Length and Field of View". Photography Life. Archived from the original on 2021-01-27. Retrieved 2021-10-18.
  3. Meyer, Jeff (December 19, 2016). "HOW TO... What is an anti-aliasing filter in a camera: explain it like I'm 5". Camera Jabber (blog). Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
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  6. Butler, Richard (May 22, 2017). "Electronic shutter, rolling shutter and flash: what you need to know". Digital Photography Review. Archived from the original on 2021-10-19. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  7. Wunderlich, Bruce. "A Beginner's Guide to Focus Stacking". Digital Photography School. Archived from the original on 2016-03-25. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  8. Pearson-Wright, Rob. "Histogram: Discover How To Take Better Photos By Exposing To The Right". PhotographyPro (blog). Archived from the original on 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  9. "DSLR Camera Basics: Metering (Live View Photography)". Nikon. Archived from the original on 2020-12-04. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  10. "'Accurate autofocus on any subject in any environment': Olympus engineer talks OM-D E-M1 Mark III AF [sponsored content]". Digital Photography Review. April 13, 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-04-16. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
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  12. "What is ISO Sensitivity?". Ricoh Imaging. Archived from the original on 2020-02-17. Retrieved 2021-10-07.

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